mg电子游戏平台
logo
banner區

您的位置:主頁>>英語>>閱讀理解>>正文

中考英語閱讀理解練習寶典

時間:2012-12-28 20:09 來源: 編輯:井琳英 點擊:
中考英語閱讀理解練習寶典

第一部分:方法指導
A初中英語閱讀訓練的六種方法

  
1. 講究閱讀方法
(1)依據主題句定短文的中心:任意一篇文章通常是圍繞一個中心展開并且由段落組成的;段落之間有著內在的緊密聯系,而表達段落主題的句子叫主題句,通常置于段落的開頭,有時在段落末尾和中間;其它的句子是用來說明和闡述主題句的;若把一個個主題句加以整理,你能悟出其中心思想,同時還可以回避、排除個別生詞、難句(等困難信號)所帶來的干擾,但也有一些文章的中心思想常貫穿在全文中,因而要綜觀全文,對全文有一個透徹的理解才行。
如:  
My friend Matt and I arrived at the Activity Centre on Friday evening. The accommodation wasn’t wonderful, but we had everything we needed (beds, blankets, food ), and we were pleased to be out of the city and in the fresh air.
On Saturday morning we met the other ten members of our group. Cameron had come along with two friends, Kevin and Simon, while sisters Carole and Lynn had come with Amanda. There were some other members I didn’t know. We had come from different places and none of us knew the area.
We knew we were going to spend the weekend outdoors, but none of us was sure exactly how. Half of us spent the morning caving while the others went rock-climbing and then we changed at lunchtime. Matt and I went to the caves (巖洞) first. Climbing out was harder than going in, but after a good deal of pushing, we were out at last. Though we were covered with mud, we were pleased and excited by what we’d done.
This passage mainly talks about ______________.
A. the writer’s friends at the Activity Center
B. the writer’s experience at the Activity Center
C. outdoor sports at the Activity Center
D. how to go rock-climbing and caving
[參考答案B] 上述這段短文的中心是說明“the writer’s experience at the Activity Center.”。作者以及作者的朋友,還有組上的其他一些成員一起在活動中心度周末的一些活動以及感受。
(2) 掌握具體事實和重要細節:閱讀文章時,要求學生養成辨認和記憶具體事實、重要細節的習慣。因為具體事實、重要細節是主題句的擴展、補充、說明或例證,是用來支持和說明中心思想的,而且是閱讀理解測試的重要組成部分。
如:If someone asks me: “Do you like music?” I’m sure I will answer him or her: “Of course, I do.” because I think music is an important part of our lives.
Different people have different ideas about music. For me, I like rock music because it’s so exciting. And my favorite rock band, the “Foxy Ladies” (酷妹) is one of the most famous rock bands in the world. I also like pop music. My classmate LiLan loves dance music, because she enjoys dancing. My best friend, Jane, likes jazz music (爵士樂). She thinks jazz is really cool.
“I like dance music and rock very much.” says my brother, “because they are amazing.”
But my mother thinks rock is boring. “I like some relaxing (輕松的) music,” she says. That’s why she likes country music, I think.
①The writer likes music because he thinks ____________.
A. it’s an exciting part of our lives  
B. it’s an amazing part of our lives
C. it’s an important part of our lives
②What kind of music does the writer like? 
A. Rock and pop music. B. Rock and dance music.  C. Jazz and country music.
③Who likes dancing?  
A. The writer.  B. Li Lan.    C. Jane.
④The writer’s mother thinks that country music is __________.
A. amazing       B. boring           C. relaxing
⑤ How many people’s ideas about music are talked about in this passage (短文)?
A. 4.               B. 5.            C. 6.
這是幾道重要事實和細節的辨認題,全是圍繞短文的主題句“Different people have different ideas about music”來展開說明的,起補充舉例作用。答案分別為 ① C ② A ③ B ④ C ⑤ B。
(3) 運用構詞法、語境線索等幫助來推測關鍵詞義:在閱讀文章的過程中,常常會遇到一些生詞,如果不懂得這些詞義就會妨礙理解,但大部分生詞的詞義是可以根據上下文,結合構詞法、借助文章中的語境線索幫助在理解基礎上猜測其詞義,這有助于加快閱讀速度,提高閱讀理解能力。如:
Water is all around us. Water is in the ocean. Water is in the lakes and rivers. Water is in the air. There is more water than land on the earth. All living things must have it. We must have it, too. We cannot live without drinking water. Sometimes, we do not have all the water that we need. The land will dry up without water. Sometimes, there can be too much water in the land. If it rains very, very hard, the rain water will run down the hill. It takes some of the land with it when it runs down the hills. It is called erosion when the water takes the land away.
“Erosion” in the passage means ____________.
A. 地震          B. 雪崩             C. 侵蝕      D. 霜凍
根據前面的語句If it rains very, very hard, the rain water will run down the hills. It takes some of the land with it when it runs down the hills.解釋可以推知erosion是一種自然地理現象,即“侵蝕”,答案為C。
2. 訓練閱讀速度
在閱讀中,我們或多或少會碰到一些生詞和不熟悉的短語,這些生詞和短語會妨礙我們對文章中心的理解,但我們總是查閱詞典也會影響閱讀的速度。為了不查詞典又能破解生詞詞義,并理解好文章的中心,要求考生根據構詞法判斷詞義。如:This material is unreadable.中 unreadable是生詞。學生可以根據詞根 read ,知道 un和 able分別為前綴和后綴,那么 unreadable的意義就不難猜測了;還可以培養學生根據生詞與上下文的關系來猜測其意義。生詞所在的句子、段落會提供很多的暗示和線索,依據這些暗示和線索就可以理解生詞的詞義了。如:同義詞反義詞線索;解釋性線索;例證性線索;標點符號線索等。如:
A. The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year.
定語從句中的 looks after sheep 就解釋了 herdsman的詞義為“牧人”。
B. Like her younger sister who is gregarious, Alice also likes to make friends.句首的 like(像)這個語境線索說明:句中的gregarious與 likes to make friends意義相近。
通過這些方式可以幫助學生加快閱讀速度,進一步提高閱讀正確率。
3. 改進閱讀方式
(1)預測:培養學生依據文章標題(副標題)、插圖以及相關的背景知識和社會生活經驗,對文章的大致內容預測以及可能涉及到的詞匯,然后閱讀文章的第一段,并對自己的預測進行驗證、糾正,同時抓住主題句、關鍵詞,從而更好地從整體上去理解和把握文章的中心。
(2)略讀:指導學生快速瀏覽全文,領會文章大意,辨析文體,掌握篇章結構,進而抓住文章的中心。
3)查讀:指導學生在瀏覽全文的基礎上進行查讀,以回答個別事實細節性的問題。有些細節性的問題不能直接在短文中找到答案,必須進行必要的綜合、歸納、轉換才能獲得,也就是要在直接可獲得的事實和細節的基礎上經過綜合、歸納、轉換間接地獲得所需要的事實和細節。它通常涉及數據、時間、人稱、代詞的指代、動作的行為的關聯、動作行為者與承受者、地點和空間、表態方式、因果、條件、內涵與外延等。如:
One day Mrs Wison went shopping with Tracy and Ben. They went to the supermarket in the new shopping center.
“Why do you buy things here?” Tracy wanted to know. “Because they are cheaper here than at the corner store near our home,” Mrs. Wilson said. “Help me check the prices, please.”
The Wilsons were not rich and Mrs. Wilson was always careful with her money. She looked carefully at the prices of things. She bought lots of things in the supermarket. When they got home, the children said, “We don’t think you saved money by going to the supermarket.” “Of course I did,” Mrs. Wilson said “Everything was cheaper there.”
“We know,” the children said, “but we came home by taxi because we had too much to carry. The taxi fare was more than the money that you saved !”
Mrs Wilson added everything up. Her children were right.
“Well done,” she said. “Next time we’ll do the shopping nearby.”
①The things at the corner store were ____ than those in the supermarket.
A. cheaper    B. nicer     C. more expensive    D. Better 
② Mrs. Wilson _________ in the end.
A. spent more money    B. paid less money 
C. lost some money    D. saved a little money
這兩個問題都是細節性問題,但又不能直接從文章中得出答案,要經過分析和計算間接地獲得事實細節。①選C。由 Mrs. Wilson 的話“Because they are cheaper here than at the corner store near our home. ”分析可知the things at the corner store were more expensive.②選A。 Mrs. Wilson 在超級市場買的東西是便宜的,但返回時由于東西多結果打的士回家將打的士的費用攤進去就高于節省的費用了,因此可以知道:Mrs. Wilson spent more money in the end.
4. 擴大英語閱讀量
目前初中英語教科書所提供的閱讀量較以前有較大幅度的增加,在題材、體裁的選取,功能與話題的設計方面均注意到多樣化和廣泛性;內容貼近學生實際,教師可以立足教材閱讀材料指導和訓練學生閱讀方法與技巧,教學語言知識和指導學生掌握句法、語法,擴大詞匯量,培養閱讀興趣,幫助學生奠定一定的英語閱讀能力。但教材中的閱讀量離大綱和課標要求的閱讀量遠遠不夠。課標五級閱讀要求規定:除教材外,課外閱讀量應 達到15萬字以上。因此教師要督促學生精讀泛讀結合,通過廣泛的閱讀不僅有利于學生擴大詞匯量,豐富語言知識、開闊視野,開拓思路,還有利于了解英美等國的文化背景、生活風俗、思維習慣及英語特有的語言表達方式,從而提高閱讀理解能力。
泛讀時,要求學生對閱讀材料中的各種語言現象不作全面精細認真的分析,而是根據已掌握的語言知識盡快地獲取所需要的信息。
5. 強化閱讀訓練
(1) 指定閱讀范圍:教師按學生的英語水平將其分成不同的組別,選擇與之相適應的英語讀物(配有一定量的問題),分別規定閱讀的范圍,要求他們課外自行安排時間,帶著問題快速閱讀,并規定一個較寬松的期限進行檢查。
(2) 進行閱讀指導:對學生閱讀過程中遇到的疑難,教師要及時答疑輔導,以幫助學生順利閱讀。但要注意從學法上多加以指導,幫助和引導他們自行分析和解決問題。
(3) 檢查閱讀效果:到了規定的閱讀期限教師可以通過口頭練習和筆試結合的方式分組檢查學生閱讀任務完成的情況。口頭練習以學生回答有關問題、講述閱讀文章的心得為主;筆試檢查要求學生完成正誤判斷題,選擇題,填空題等。
(4) 展示閱讀效果:利用英語課外活動,通過開展書評、辯論會、演講會等活動來展示不同組學生課外泛讀的成果。分A、B組評論讀物;討論讀物的人物特征、主要情節等,讓學生在寬松的氛圍中各抒己見,互相交流,從而促進學生閱讀時積極思考,認真閱讀,同時加深對讀物的理解,培養表達能力。
6. 加強評估指導
通過評估測試可以檢測學生閱讀理解實際能力與水平,可以摸清學生的強項與不足,從而為進一步培養學生閱讀能力提供依據。教師要充分發揮閱讀測試的指揮棒作用。閱讀測試文章選材要廣泛多樣,篇幅要恰當,難易要適中,從而確保閱讀測試的信度和效度;在題型設計上做到主觀性題型和客觀性題型兼顧,并針對學生平時閱讀中反映出來的重點、難點與疑點,避免題型過于單一以及偏題、怪題現象,更不能片面追求試題難度。客觀性測試題要能通過閱讀文章直接找到答案;主觀性測試題要能在閱讀短文后通過上下文,運用聯想、比較、歸納、分析判斷文章的隱含意義。測試后要認真進行分析和總結,做到發現問題及時解決,以便進一步提高。


B做閱讀理解的五點注意

一、五點注意
注意一:試題各小題所提供的四個備選項,有的是語法、結構上有錯誤,有的是與短文意思不相符。解題時要把有結構、語法錯誤的先排除,再考慮是否符合短文內容。
注意二:對短文中的生詞或看不懂的句子,應大膽根據構詞法及上、下文意思進行猜測,尤其對涉及文中某個詞或某個句子含義的選擇試題,要根據文章所闡述的主要內容及上、下文內在邏輯關系,大膽分析推斷,去偽存真選出正確答案。
注意三:對于涉及文章主旨、大意、作者意圖及短文標題等選擇試題,雖然短文中沒有直接說明,可統觀全文,通過短文所提供的材料或聯想短文材料以外的常識,如結合已學過的自然、社會科學知識加以綜合理解、分析推測或按作者的思路進行推理,從而且推斷出正確答案。
注意四:做選擇試題時一般先做在文中能直接找到依據的細節題,后做主旨題、推理題。這樣在對語篇有更多領悟的基礎上再進行推理判斷和概括總結,把握性就更大。
注意五:閱讀的順序一般是先讀短文,再看題目,然后逐題作答。若文章較長,也可以先將測試題目通覽一遍,然后帶著問題閱讀文章。這樣對與答題有關的段落、句子反應敏感,而對其他與答題無關的部分可以不必花費太多時間,閱讀速度就可加快些。

C “先題后文”閱讀方法說明
關于“先題后文”,同學們運用此法時要注意:
1. 先讀題時只能是讀其問題或題干,而不能讀問題后的選項,否則不僅浪費時間,而且也無法記住眾多答案所表達的眾多信息。
2. 在讀了題之后,要把這些問題記在心里,并帶著這些問題去閱讀短文,關于這一點考生是要經過反復的訓練才能形成能力的,因為短文后的這些問題本身所表達的信息并不象短文那樣有情節,也不象短文那樣連貫,所以有不少同學在開始試用這種方法時,往往先讀了題之后(尤其是當問題較多時)再讀短文時,又忘記是什么問題了。
3. 帶著問題讀短文時,對短文中出現的那些與問題有關的詞句,你可以用一支鉛筆在短文中作些記號,以便為下一步選擇作好準備,但也要注意不要每讀到一個與問題有關的信息點就停下來去對照后面的問題,因為這樣轉來轉去要耽誤一些時間,另一方面有些問題往往要通過對短文的全面了解才能作出結論,而不能僅僅從一、二個信息點作出判斷。
4. 帶著問題讀完短文之后,接著便是選擇理解題的答案。雖然你是帶著問題去閱讀短文的,但也并不是說你在閱讀時帶去的問題全部得到了答案,也可能有些還沒有把握(尤其是一些主觀理解題),這時你同樣要帶著這些“疑題”去跳讀短文(具體做法參見上面的“先文后題”的有關說明)。

D 閱讀簡答的答題技巧

學生們做“閱讀簡答”這樣的題目時,普遍覺得不難,而考試結果一出來,卻發現得高分的不多,原因就在于這種題型不僅要求考生讀懂文章, 還要求他們用自己的語言簡練的回答有關問題;既考查了學生的閱讀理解能力,也考查了他們的英語表達能力和概括能力,另外,對回答的拼寫、語法的正確性的要求,使得做簡答題有一定的難度。再加上解答這樣的題型幾乎沒有猜題的技巧可言,也從某種意義上加大了做題的難度。要想取得較好的成績,好的解題步驟和技巧是非常重要的。
1. 通讀全文。做簡答題的關鍵是要讀懂原文,因此首先要通讀全文、弄清楚段落大意及文章的中心意思以及作者的基本觀點、態度,正確理解語境。
2. 按題查讀,即根據問題去尋找答案。認真閱讀問題,充分理解問題,準確理解所問的內容,確定需要在文章中查找的對象,避免答非所問。
3. 簡練作答。在基本確定了每道題的回答內容之后,就要用簡練、準確的英語表達出來。注意回答問題時要切中要點,不要畫蛇添足。組織答案時,注意避免語言錯誤,如:時態、主謂一致、句子結構和拼寫等。如需引用原文,要作適當改動,最好不要整句照搬.
4. 認真核查。完成所填的答案以后,再將原短文和補全后的短文或句子放在一起,審讀一遍,上下對比參照,逐一檢查所填的詞是否符合原文主旨和細節,是否答非所問,是否仍存在語法、詞匯拼寫等錯誤,另外還有一點也要注意:如果對字數有要求, 是否符合要求。
5. 答案形式要符合提問方式。不同類型的問題要求有不同形式的回答,不能僅僅為了答案的簡潔而忽略了問題與回答在形式上的對應。如原文中提問方式為“why”,那么就要用“because”引導的從句來回答。
答題時值得注意的是:根據語境、先定詞義、后定詞形。因此首先得縱觀全文,圍繞中心意思,綜合考慮來確定詞義,保證所填的詞符合全文的大意。查讀相關的段落或詞句時,應仔細對照留有空格的句子或問題,找出充足的依據來確定該空格應填詞的詞義。所填的詞還必須符合語法正確的原則,必須從詞語搭配、句型結構以及人稱、時態、語態上來判定所填詞的正確形式,所填的詞以實詞為主,有些要填的詞可以從原短文中直接找到答案。
E如何應對閱讀理解中的細節題和推理題

一、做細節事實題的方法
在閱讀理解題目中,有相當一部分是考查細節和事實的題目。這類題目相對容易一些。這些題目有兩個共同特點:(1) 凡屬針對特定細節的考題,其正確答案大都可以在閱讀材料中找到對應的文字部分作為驗證。這一部分可能是一個詞或短語,也可能是一個句子或相關的若干句子,但句式、用詞和表達方式不同。(2) 干擾項往往是主體思想與細節混雜,正確答案細節和非正確答案的細節混雜,甚至真假混雜。因此,要做好閱讀理解中的確定細節和事實的題目,一要在文章中找出相應的信息點,二要排除干擾項。
二、做推理判斷題的方法
所謂推斷,就是根據閱讀材料中所提供的信息,推斷出未知的信息。即把有關的文字作為已知部分,從中推斷出未知部分。據以推斷的有關文字可能是詞或句子,也可能是若干句子,甚至是全文。中考英語試題中的推斷題主要有以下幾種:
1.事實推斷
這種推斷常常針對某一個或幾個具體細節,是比較簡單的推斷。進行這種推斷,要首先在文章中找出據以推斷的有關文字,然后加以分析,尤其要悟出字里行間的意思。例如:
According to the passage, which of the following can you most possibly watch on TV?
A. You often play football with your friends after school.
B. Your teacher has got a cold.
C. A tiger in the city zoo has run out and hasn’t been caught.
D. The bike in front of your house is lost.
在閱讀材料中,有這樣一段文字:
Secondly, a news story has to be interesting and unusual. People don’t want to read stories about everyday life. As a result, many stories are about some kind of danger and seem to be “bad” news.
根據這段文字,我們可以推斷:電視報道的新聞故事必須是有趣的和不平常的。因此,正確答案應為C。
2.指代推斷
確定代詞的含義和指代對象是閱讀理解題常見的題目。要確定指代詞所指代的對象,關鍵在于對所在上下文的正確理解。指代名詞的指代詞,其單復數形式英語被指代的詞一致,因此數的形式可作為識別指代對象第一個輔助標志。
3.邏輯推斷
這類題目往往是要求根據文章所提供的背景,人物的表情,動作和語言來推斷出人物的態度或感覺。
4.對作者的意圖和態度的推斷
這一類考題大都要求考生就作者對論述對象持什么樣的態度做出推斷,如作者對所陳述的觀點是贊同、反對,還是猶豫不定,對記述或描寫的人、物或事件是贊頌、同情、冷漠,還是厭惡。作者的這種思想傾向和感情色彩不一定直接表述出來,而往往隱含在字里行間。因此,進行這種推斷時,我們既要依靠短文的主題思想作為推力的前提,又要注意作者的措辭,尤其是形容詞一類的修飾語。

F 如何猜測閱讀理解題中的生詞詞義

詞匯是閱讀理解的基礎的基礎。我們必須掌握教材中所學所有的單詞和詞組;了解構詞法知識,如熟記一些常見的前綴、后綴,以及詞語的合成和轉化等;并且要進行大量的課外閱讀擴大自己的詞匯量。要閱讀需要一定的詞匯量,同時在大量閱讀的同時不僅可以復習學過的詞匯而且還可擴大自己的詞匯量。盡管如此,在閱讀中還是不可避免會遇到生詞或者熟詞生義,在英語閱讀理解試題中猜測詞義也是必不可少的題目,因此,我們必須學會如何猜測詞義。任何一個詞語,在一定的上下文中只能表示一個確定的詞義。據此,我們可以盡可能地利用上下文來猜測詞義,即從已知推求未知,也就是用我們所熟悉的詞或短語來猜測我們不熟悉的詞的詞義。猜測詞義時,我們可以從以下幾個方面來考慮:
一、根據定義或解釋猜測詞義
A bag is useful and the word “bag” is useful. It gives us some interesting phrases(短語). One is “ to let the cat out of the bag”. It is the same as “to tell a secret”….
Now when someone lets out (泄漏) a secret, he “lets the cat out of the bag.”
John “lets the cat out of the bag” means he ______.
A. makes everyone know a secret B. the woman bout a cat
C. buys a cat in the bag  D. sells the cat in the bag
在這篇文章里,“let the cat out of the bag”雖然是一個新出現的短語,但緊接著后面就給出解釋It is the same as “to tell a secret”根據這一解釋,我們就可判斷出正確答案應為A。
二、根據情景和邏輯進行判斷
As they go around town, the police help people. Sometimes they find lost children. They take the children home. If the police see a fight, they put an end to it right away. Sometimes people will ask the police how to get to a place in town. The police can always tell the people which way to go. They know all the streets and roads well.
In the text, “put an end to” means “______”.
A. stop B. cut C. kill D. fly
根據文章所提供的情景,如果警察看到有人在打架,他們肯定會去制止。因為制止打架斗毆是警察的職責。根據這一推理,答案應該是A。
三、根據并列或同位關系猜測詞義
There is a place on our earth where hot water and steam come up under the ground. It is on a large island in the Pacific Ocean. The island is North Island in New Zealand.
What does the word “steam” mean in Chinese?
A. 自來水 B. 大氣 C. 冰川 D. 蒸汽
從語法上看,steam和hot water是并列關系,我們就以斷定這兩種東西是相關的,是同一類物質。在所給第四個選項中只有“蒸汽”有這種可能。
四、根據背景和常識判斷
The following morning when I went to see how my captive (caged) bird was doing, I discovered it on the floor of the cage, dead. I was terribly surprised! What had happened! I had taken extremely care of my little bird. Arthur Wayne, the famous ornithologist, who happened to be visiting my father at the time, hearing me crying over the death of my bird, explained what had happened. “A mother mockingbird, finding her young in a cage, will sometimes bring it poison berries(毒莓). She thinks it better for her young to die than to live in captivity.”
An ornithologist is probably a person who ______.
A. studies birds B. loves creatures C. majors in habits D. takes care of trees
Ornithologist 這個詞從來沒有見到過,但是通過他的語言我們可以判斷出這是一個對鳥很有研究的人。我很愛鳥,把鳥裝在籠子里,并細心照料,而且鳥的母親也飛過來喂這只鳥,但這只鳥卻死了,我很不理解。到我家來的這個人給我詳細解釋了鳥死的原因,說明這個人非常懂鳥。據此,我們可以斷定答案影視A。
G 利用主題句解閱讀理解題

最有效的辦法是找出主題句。一篇文章(或一段文章) 通常都是圍繞一個中心意思展開的。而這個中心意思往往由一個句子來概括。這個能概括文章或段落中心意思的句子叫做主題句。因此,理解一個段落或一篇文章的中心意思首先要學會尋找主題句。主題句一般具有三個特點:(1) 概括性強:表述的意思比較概括。(2) 結構簡單:句子結構較簡單,多數都不采用長、難句的形式。(3) 受它支撐:段落中其他的句子是用來解釋、支撐或發展該句所表述的主題思想。在一篇短文或一個段落中,大部分主題句的位置情況有三種:
一、主題句在段首或篇首
主題句在段首或篇首的情況相當普遍。一般新聞報道、說明文, 議論文大都采用先總述,后分述的敘事方法。例如:
All living things on the earth need other living things to live. Nothing lives alone. Most animals must live in a group, and even a plant grows close together with others of the same kind. Sometimes one living thing kills another, one eats and the other is eaten. Each kind of life eats another kind of life in order to live, and together they form a food chain(食物鏈)。Some food chains become broken up if one of the links disappears.
第一句即是主題句。這個句子概括了本段的中心意思:“地球上所有的生物要生存都離不開其他的生物”。后面講述了大量的事實之后,作者指出:如果這些食物鏈中的一個鏈環消失,所有的食物都會斷掉。所有這些事實都是圍繞第一個句子展開的。
二、主題句在段末或篇末
用歸納法寫文章時,往往表述細節的句子在前,概述性的句子在后,并以此結尾。這種位于段末或篇末的主題句往往是對前面細節的歸納總結或者所得出的結論。例如:
If you buy some well-made clothes, you can save money because they can last longer. They look good even after they have been washed many times. Sometimes some clothes cost more money, but it does not mean that they are always better made, or they always fit better. In other words, some less expensive clothes look and fit better than more expensive clothes.
這段文章前面列舉了兩件事實,最后一句是對這兩個事實的概括:有些價錢便宜的衣服比價錢貴的衣服更好看,更合身。段末這個句子就是主題句。
三、無主題句
有時,一篇文章里并沒有明顯的主題句。這時我們應該怎樣來確定文章的主題或中心意思呢?其實這也不難。我們可以首先找出每一段的中心意思,各段的中心意思往往都是圍繞一個中心來展開的,或者說是來說明一個問題的。這個中心或這個問題就是這篇文章的主題或中心意思。
Killer bees started in Brazil 1957. A scientist in Sao Paulo wanted bees to make more honey(蜂蜜). So he put forty-six African bees with some Brazilian bees. The bees bred(繁殖) and made a new kind of bees. But the new bees were a mistake. They didn’t want to make more honey. They wanted to attack. Then, by accident, twenty-six African bees escaped and bred with the Brazilian bees outside.
Scientists could not control(控制) the problem. The bees increased fast. They went from Brazil to Venezuela. Then they went to Central America. Now they are in North America. They travel about 390 miles a year. Each group of bees grows four times a year. This means one million new groups every five years.
Why are people afraid of killer bees? People are afraid for two reasons. First, the bees sting(叮) many more times than usual bees. Killer bees can sting sixty times a minute nonstop for two hours. Second, killer bees attack in groups. Four hundred bee stings can kill a person.
Already several hundred people are dead. Now killer bees are in Texas. In a few years they will reach all over the United States. People can do nothing but wait.
這篇短文表面看起來沒有主題句,那末怎樣來確定它的中心意思呢?按照上面的說明,我們先找出每一段的大意:第一段講的是killer bees的產生。第二段講的是 killer bees 的急劇增加。第三段講的是人們害怕 killer bees 的原因。第四段講的是 killer bees 已經殺死的人數和將來的狀況。從這幾段的大意可以看出這篇文章自始至終都是圍繞 killer bees 這一中心展開的。換句話說,killer bees 就是這篇文章的主題。

H短文改寫填空型閱讀理解實例分析

一、實例訓練
Robert is fifteen now. Two and a half years ago he came to the city and began to study in a middle school. He studies hard and gets on well with his classmates. And he often helps his friends with their lessons. But as he comes from a village, the headmaster who was born in a rich family is bad to him and does his best to make excuses to punish him. The boy knows it and takes precautions against(提防) it.
One afternoon all the students went to have lunch and he bought a piece of bread. He was reading a book under a big tree, while a dog was standing near him. At that moment the headmaster came out and saw it. He became angry and said, “Don’t you know we don’t let anybody rear (飼養) dogs in the school?”
“Yes, I do, sir. ”said the boy.
“Why have you brought your dog to school, then?”
“It isn’t my dog. ”
“Why is it following you, then?”
“You’re following me now, sir. ” said the boy, “Can you say you are mine?”
請根據以上短文在改寫后短文的空白處填入適當的詞,使其完整。
Robert is fifteen. He is in Grade _______(1) now. He studies hard and his classmates are _______(2) to him. And he often helps his friends to _______(3) their lessons. But as he was _______(4) in a farmer family, the headmaster from a _______(5) family is bad to him and does_______(6) he can to punish him.
One day in the _______(7), all the students went _______(8) lunch and he bought a piece of bread, reading a book under a tree. At the moment a dog was standing near him. _______(9) the headmaster saw this, he wanted to_______(10) him. But he failed that day again.
二、答題分析
第一步:快讀全文,掌握大意。通讀原文我們知道。文章講敘了Robert 和校長的一些情況,Robert 是一個初中學生,他出生于貧困之家,但學習努力與同學相處融洽。校長出生于富貴家庭對Robert很不友好,總是想盡辦法懲罰他, Robert時刻小心提防他。一天下午校長又想趁機懲罰他,但未能得逞。
第二步:細讀改寫,尋找異同。如原文中說Two and half years ago he came to the city and began to study in a middle school. 而改寫中卻是He is in Grade_______(1) now. 由原文中的Two and half years ago 可知第(1)空要填Three. 原文中說He studies hard and gets on well with his classmates, 而改寫中卻是He studies hard and his classmates are _______(2) to him. 由于“他與同學相處融洽”那么“他的同學一定是對他很友好了”。因此第二空填kind或friendly。第3空是一個典型的同義句改寫,即help sb. with sth. 與help sb. to do sth. 的轉換。
第三步:字斟句酌,各個擊破。比如第4, 5, 7空與原文幾乎沒多大差別可先填好(4) born, (5) rich, (7) afternoon。對于與原文有較大差異的空,則需要字斟句酌,細仔推敲了。我們要在對比改寫文中的句子與原文句子差別的前提下,推測改寫文中的句子所要表達的意思,然后根據我們所學的知識推出所要填寫的單詞。如:
原文中的and does his best to make excuses to punish him 正是改寫文中and does _______(6) he can to punish him 要表達的意思。這里does后面是一個賓語從句,而從句缺少引導詞,因此填入what正合適。這一空較難因為can后面省去了動詞原形do。這句話意為“并且做他所能做的事情來懲罰他”。
而原文中的…all the students went to have lunch 與改寫文中的all the students went _______(8) lunch. went to have lunch 與went for lunch 同義。故第8空填for。
改寫中的_______(9) the headmaster saw this, he wanted to _______(10) him. But he failed that day again. 是對原文第二段后面部分的概括,通過比較我們知道改寫中要表達的意思是“當校長看見那種情況時,他想懲罰他,但那一天他又失敗了”。因此第9空填,when第10空填punish。 
第四步:復讀改寫,糾正失誤。如:第1空應大寫首字母,很多考生可能會忽略這一點。
第二部分 閱讀練習一

A
I’ve loved my mother’s desk since I was just tall enough to see above the top of it as mother sat doing letters. Standing by her chair, looking at the ink bottle, pens, and white paper, I decided that the act of writing must be the more wonderful thing in the world.
Years later, during her final illness, mother kept different things for my sister and brother. “But the desk,” she’d said again, “it’s for Elizabeth. ”
I never saw her angry, never saw her cry. I knew she loved me; she showed it in action. But as a young girl, I wanted heart-to-heart talks between mother and daughter.
They never happened. And a gulf opened between us. I was “too emotional(易動感情的)”. But she lived “on the surface(表面)”.
As years passed I had my own family. I loved my mother and thanked her for our happy family. I wrote to her in careful words and asked her to let me know in any way she chose that she did forgive(原諒) me.
I posted the letter and waited for her answer. None came.
My hope turned to disappointment(失望), then little interest and, finally, peace— it seemed that nothing happened. I couldn’t be sure that the letter had even got to mother. I only knew that I had written it, and I could stop trying to make her into someone she was not.
Now the present of her desk told, as she’d never been able to, that she was pleased that writing was my chosen work. I cleaned the desk carefully and found some papers inside —a photo of my father and a one-page letter, folded(折疊) and refolded many times.
Give me an answer, my letter asks, in any way you choose. Mother, you always chose the act that speaks louder than words.
根據短文內容,選擇最佳答案。
1. The writer began to love her mother’s desk ______.
A. after Mother died 
    B. before she became a writer
C. when she was a child
    D. when Mother gave it to her
2. The passage shows that ______.
A. mother was cold on the surface but kind in her heart to her daughter
B. mother was too serious about everything her daughter had done
C. mother cared much about her daughter in words
D. mother wrote to her daughter in careful words
3. The word “gulf” in the passage means ______.
A. deep understanding between the old and the young
B. different ideas between the mother and the daughter
C. free talks between mother and daughter
D. part of the sea going far in land
4. What did mother do with her daughter’s letter asking forgiveness?
A. She had never received the letter.
B. For years, she often talked about the letter.
C. She didn’t forgive her daughter at all in all her life.
D. She read the letter again and again till she died.
5. What’s the best title of the passage?
A. My letter to Mother
B. Mother and Children
C. My mother’s Desk
D. Talks between Mother and Me
B

One day the famous American scientist Albert Einstein met an old friend of his on a street in New York.
“Mr Einstein,” said the friend, “ it seems that you need to put on a new overcoat. Look, how worn-out it is!”
“It doesn’t matter,” answered Albert Einstein. “No one knows me here in New York.”
Several years later they met in New York again. Einstein had been a world-famous physicist after then but he still wore the same old overcoat.
Once more his friend persuaded him to buy a new one.
“There is no need now,” said Einstein, “Everybody here has known me.”
根據短文內容,回答問題。
1. Where did Albert Einstein met an old friend of his?
________________________________________________________________
2. What did the friend want him to buy?
________________________________________________________________
3. How about Einstein’s overcoat?
________________________________________________________________
4. Did Einstein still wear the same old overcoat when he became a world-famous physicist?
________________________________________________________________
5. What did Einstein say when the friend persuade once more him to buy a new overcoat?
________________________________________________________________

C
Once Goethe, the great German poet, was walking in a park. He was thinking about something when he noticed he came to a very, very narrow road. Just at that time, a young man came towards him from the other end of the road. It was too narrow for both of them to pass through at the same time. They stopped and looked at each other for a while. Then the young man said rudely, “I never make way for a fool.” But Goethe smiled and said, “I always do.” Then he turned back quickly and walked towards the end of the road.
根據短文內容,回答問題。
1. Where was Goethe walking?
________________________________________________________________
2. Who came towards Goethe from the other end of the road?
________________________________________________________________
3. Was the road too narrow for both of them to pass through at the same time?
________________________________________________________________
4. Did the young man make way for Goethe?
________________________________________________________________
5. Who turned back quickly and walked towards the end of the road?
_______________________________________________________
D
Not many years ago, some farmers were worried because hawks were taking many of their chicken. The farmers didn’t know what to do. Finally they went to the country officials and asked for help.
“Kill the hawks,” the officials said, “We will even pay for them,” so the farmers began to think of ways to kill the hawks.
The farmers killed many hawks. They no longer had to worry about their chickens. But they now had a new worry. Field mice were eating up a lot of the farmers’ grain.
How did this happen?
Hawks eat not only chickens but also field mice. They eat more field mice than chickens. But the farmers didn’t know this. When they killed a lot of hawks, they changed the balance.
When people move into a new place, they often destroy many wild plants. Often these plants are food for the animals. If the animals can’t find enough plants to eat, they will starve or have to leave the place.
In one part of the USA, for example the deer there like to eat a certain kind of wild roses. The mountain lions there eat the deer. The number of deer, mountain lions and wild roses doesn’t change much if people leave things as they are.
But people killed many mountain lions in order to protect the deer. Soon there were so many deer that they ate up all the wild roses. Then the deer began to eat the green leaves of young trees. These trees were important to the farmers. So the farmers thought of ways to protect their trees. Now the deer had nothing to eat, and many of them died. This was another lesson from nature.
To keep the balance of nature is important for us to remember.
根據以上短文內容判斷正誤,正確的用“T”表示,錯誤的用“F”表示。
1. Finally the officials told the farmers to kill the hawks.
2. Field mice eat not only chickens but also the farmers’ grain.
3. When the animals can’t find enough plants to eat in a place, they will starve or have to leave.
4. The number of animals changes much if people leave things as they are.
5. It is important for us to keep the balance of nature.

E


Little Tommy was doing very badly in math. His parents had tried everything—tutors (家庭教師), cards, special learning centers—in short, everything they could think of. Finally they took Tommy to a catholic (天主教的) school.
After the first day, little Tommy came home with a very serious look on his face. He didn’t kiss his mother hello. Instead, he went straight to his room and started studying. Books and papers were spread (鋪開) out all over the room and little Tommy was hard at work. His mother was surprised. She called him down to dinner and as soon as he finished eating, he went back to his room, without a word. In no time he was back hitting the books as hard as before. This went on for some time, day after day while the mother tried to understand what was happening.
Finally, little Tommy brought home his report card. He quietly put it on the table and went up to his room and hit the books. His mom looked at it and to her surprise, little Tommy got an A in math. She could no longer hold her curiosity (好奇心). She went to his room and asked, “Son, what was it? Was it the nuns (修女)?”
Little Tommy looked at her and shook his head, “No. ”
“Well then,” she asked again. “WHAT was it?”
Little Tommy looked at her and said, “Well, on the first day of school, when I saw that man nailed (釘) to the plus sign (加號), I knew they weren’t joking. ”
根據以上短文內容,然后從每題所給的四個選項中選擇最佳選項。
1. Why did Tommy’s parents send him to a catholic school?
A. Because he could eat well there.
B. Because he could earn more about nuns.
C. Because his parents wanted him to do better in his math.
D. Because his parents didn’t want him to learn math any more.
2. Tommy’s mother felt surprised that his son _______.
A. was still the same as usual
B. ate so much at dinner
C. kissed her hello after school
D. worked hard but said little
3. “Hitting the books” means “_______” in Chinese.
A. 用功
B. 捶書
C. 發泄
D. 振作
4. The last sentence in the passage shows that _______.
A. Tommy felt sorry for the mail
B. Tommy was afraid of being nailed
C. Tommy didn’t like the plus sign
D. Tommy liked playing jokes on others
5. From the passage, we can infer (推斷) that _______.
A. teachers should be strict with their students
B. mistaking (誤解) might do good sometimes
C. a catholic school is much better than other ones
D. nuns are good at helping children with their math

數據統計中!!
分享到:
mg电子游戏平台 天津时时彩漏洞开奖 时时走势图怎么看号 新时时彩走势图163 贵州十一选五遗漏汇总 5星时时缩水 黑龙江11选5开奖号码查询 浙江6十1带坐标的走势图 163广东11选5开奖信息 广东十一选5大小走势图 安徽11选5分布图 彩票十大信誉排行平台网 北京时时的官网